These situations can be put into three broad classes: Removing Market Distortions and Distortive Policies In addition to pursuing favorable economic policies and putting in place appropriate social safety nets, there are specific structural reforms that governments can undertake to insulate the poor from the adverse consequences of shocks.
Implications of Taxation and Government Spending Broadly speaking, fiscal policy is the use of taxation and government spending for the purposes of macroeconomic goals. The appropriate policies to protect the poor during adjustment are to maintain, or even increase, social expenditures and to adopt, where feasible, compensatory measures that would insulate or offset temporary adverse impacts to the fullest extent possible.
There is no unique set of thresholds for each macroeconomic variable between stability and instability. In particular, the underlying structural features of an economy need to be supportive of a fixed regime broadly speaking for example, the degree of price rigidity, the nature of its predominant exogenous shocks, the degree of political support, etc.
Key questions would include: What policies can help meet this objective. Proportional taxes maintain a constant rate irrespective of income. An important medium-term objective for many developing countries will be to raise domestic revenue levels with a view to providing additional revenue in support of their poverty reduction strategies.
While, under normal conditions, this is not a serious concern, in a period of accelerated repayment it would mean a sizable outflow of rupees from the India.
The Cyclically Balanced Budget sees the government balancing the budget over the course of the business cycle, whilst exerting a counter cyclical influence. When the government borrows money from its own citizens, it has to pay interest on such debt.
These policies can make adjustment more severe during busts, since the resulting expenditure cuts following a negative shock have sometimes fallen on social programs and transfers to the poor—just when they are needed the most.
Shocks can also be amplified through the banking system. Bankruptcies in the nontradable sector may translate into unemployment of the urban poor. First, in light of the importance of growth for poverty reduction, and of macroeconomic stability for growth, the broad objective of macroeconomic policy should be the establishment, or strengthening, of macroeconomic stability.
It is not always proper to effect a change in the tax system whenever the public expenditure exceeds the public revenue.
Sacrificing low inflation through faster monetary growth to finance additional expenditure is generally not an effective means to reduce poverty because the poor are most vulnerable to price increases.
For example, many low income countries have a narrow export base, often centered on one or two key commodities. In doing so, policymakers should consider the scope for reallocating existing government spending into priority areas and away from nonproductive, nonpriority spending, as well as from areas where a rationale for public intervention does not exist.
Based on a traditional orthodox view, the Annually Balanced Budget sees the government control its budget on a yearly basis, which is considered an advantage.
These three problems may now be briefly discussed: For example, how do the costs in terms of poverty of higher spending and higher fiscal deficits compare with the benefits of targeting that spending on the poor.
Third, and most important, the framework should be simple enough that government officials can use it on their desktop computers. Fiscal policy can be expansionarythat is aimed at growing the economy and increasing employment, or contractionary aimed at slowing the growth of the economy.
A more diversified economy with a vibrant manufacturing sector might offer the best chances for a sustainable improvement in living standards in the long run.
The advantages of this policy include offsetting a depression; the government should lower taxes and increase spending to incur a deficit.
In all three cases, national poverty indicators improved as per capita income rose. While growth is almost always accompanied by a reduction in income poverty, and negative growth is accompanied by an increase in poverty, for any given growth rate the impact on poverty can vary substantially.
The same is true in the case of external debt, but policymakers also need to determine whether the terms on such borrowing are appropriate and whether the added debt burden is sustainable.
Companies that pollute, for instance, do not pay anything extra for the damage they do to the environment.
Also within an inflationary period taxes should be raised, government spending cut to counteract the deficit gained during the recession. Second, they are generally less able than are the better off to protect the real value of their incomes and assets from inflation.
Real property taxes may also be used if they can be administered appropriately, though this may be difficult in developing countries. In Africa, for instance, there is evidence that children from poor families drop out of school during crises.
In fact, econometric evidence of investment behavior indicates that in addition to conventional factors i. If the benefits of growth are translated into poverty reduction through the existing distribution of income, then more equal societies will be more efficient transformers of growth into poverty reduction.
The structure of credit markets can also affect the poor indirectly: Introduction Poverty is a multidimensional problem that goes beyond economics to include, among other things, social, political, and cultural issues see Box 1.
It is to be seen whether the transaction is casual or regular. In this lesson, we'll define debt and interest. You'll also learn three debt management strategies: budgeting, paying early and reducing high.
May 31, · She is Program Manager of the Debt Management Facility and is working as a Lead Debt Specialist with the World Bank’s Global Practice for Macroeconomics and Fiscal Policy.
Prior to this, she was a Director at the Reserve Bank of India, managing the debt of both the federal government and 28 sub-nationals. Macroeconomics – Managing Public Debt Managing Public Debt There are three ways to manage public debt.
These budget philosophies are the Annually Balanced Budget, Cyclically Balanced Budget and Functional Finance. Public debt usually only refers to national michaelferrisjr.com some countries also include the debt owed by states, provinces, and municipalities.
Therefore, be careful when comparing public debt between countries to make sure the definitions are the same. The effects of public debt management on macroeconomic equilibrium: An analysis of the Brazilian economic authorities used to attract foreign capital flows by managing the country's public debt as an instrument for hedging against the exchange rate risk.
L.R. Wray, M. Forstater (Eds.), Keynes and Macroeconomics After 70 Years, Edward. Governments incur debt when their spending desires exceed their receipts from taxes and other income sources, and that debt is ultimately repaid through a levy of taxes in excess of current spending.Macroeconomics managing public debt